Glossary

Disclaimer: These may not be the exact translations which is why I used the approximately equal sign (≈). To get the most accurate translation of each word, I highly recommend that you ask a scholar, your Imām, or your Arabic teacher to tell you the meaning of each.

A

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala ≈ Allah the Most Glorified, the Most High

Alhamdulillah ≈ all praise is due to Allah

Allahu Akbar ≈ Allah is Greater // Allah is the Greatest

Āmīn/Ameen ≈ O Allah, accept our invocation/prayer

As salaamu alaikum ≈ peace be unto you // Muslims greet one another with this phrase

Aurah ≈ the parts of the body that are not allowed to be exposed to others

Āyah/Āyāt ≈ proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, revelations, etc.

B

Bid'ah ≈ any innovated practice in religion

Bismillah ≈ in the name of Allah

D

Dua ≈ supplication

E

Eid-al-Adha ≈ the festival of Muslims starting on the 10th day of Dhul-Hijjah—the last month in the Islamic calendar

Eid-al-Fitr ≈ the festival of Muslims starting on the first day of Shawwāl—the month that follows Ramadān // Fitr literally means "breaking the Saum (fast)"

H

Hadith ≈ the sayings, deeds, and approvals accurately narrated from the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)

Hajj ≈ pilgrimage to Makkah

Halāl ≈ lawful; permissible

Harām ≈ unlawful; forbidden; impermissible

Hayā ≈ modesty, self-respect, bashfulness, honor, etc. // There are two kinds of hayā: (1) good hayā — to be ashamed to commit a crime or a deed which Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) has forbidden (2) bad hayā — to be ashamed to do a deed, which Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala and His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered to do.

I

Iftār ≈ breaking the fast // the meal Muslims eat when they break their fast

Imām ≈ the person who leads others in salāt [usually at the mosque/masjid]

Imān ≈ faith/belief

In shaa Allah ≈ if Allah wills/God willing

J

Jahannam ≈ hellfire 

Jahiliyyah ≈ (1) ignorance belonging to the period before the advent of the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) // (2) un-islamic practices which either existed or were inherited from the era before the advent of the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam)

Janāzah ≈ funeral

Jannah ≈ Paradise; Heaven

Jinn ≈ a creation of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala made from fire

Jumu'ah ≈ Friday

K

Ka'bah ≈ a square stone building in Al-Masjid-al-Harām which all Muslims face in salāt

Kāfir ≈ the one who disbelieves in Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, His Messengers, all the angels, all the holy books, Day of Resurrection, and Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainment)

Khimār ≈ head-cover/headscarf Muslim women wear that covers all of the hair on the head, the ears, neck, and bosoms

Kufr ≈ disbelief in any of the articles of Islamic faith which are: to believe in Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, His angels, His Messengers, His revealed Books, the Day of Resurrection, and Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainment)

L

Lā ilāha-illallāh ≈ None has the right to be worshipped but Allah

Lailat-ul-Qadr ≈ one of the odd last ten nights of the month of fasting (i.e. Ramadan) // Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala describes it as better than one thousand months, and the one who worships Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala during it by performing optional prayers and reciting the Noble Qur'an, etc. will get a reward better than that of worshipping Him for one thousand months

M

Mahr ≈ bridal money given by the husband to the wife at the time of marriage

Mahram ≈ someone you cannot marry because of close relationship // e.g. for sisters: father, brother, uncle // e.g. for brothers: mother, sister, aunt // (2) a mahram is also a woman's husband

Masjid/Mosque ≈ a place of worship for Muslims

Miswāk ≈ a toothbrush made of Arāk-tree roots

Mu'adhdhin ≈ a person who pronounces the Adhān loudly calling people to come and perform the salāt

Mushrikūn ≈ polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala and His Messenger Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam)

N

Nawāfil ≈ optional practice of worship

Nikāh ≈ marriage according to Islamic law

P

Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ≈ The last and final prophet/messenger of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala

Q

Qiblah ≈ the direction towards which all Muslims face in salāt and that direction is towards the Ka'bah in Makkah (Saudi Arabia)

Qur'an ≈ final revelation/last holy book that was sent down as a guidance for mankind

R

Rabb ≈ the One and the Only Lord for all the universe; its Creator, Owner, Organizer, Provider, Master, Planner, Sustainer, Cherisher, and Giver of security

Rak'ah ≈ a unit of prayer that consists of one standing, one bowing, and two prostrations

Ramadan ≈ the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the month in which the Qur'an was first revealed to Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) // Muslims fast during this month

S

Sabr ≈ patience

Sadaqah ≈ anything given in charity

Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam ≈ peace and blessings be upon him; Muslims say this phrase after mentioning the Prophet Muhammad's name (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) 

Salah/Salāt ≈ prayer(s)

As-Saum ≈ the fasting: cannot eat or drink anything or have sexual relations from the time of the Adhān for Fajr prayer until sunset

Shahādah ≈ testimony of faith: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) is the Messenger of Allah."

Shirk ≈ polytheism and to worship others along with Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala

Subhān Allah ≈ Glorified is Allah

Suhūr/Suhoor ≈ a meal eaten at before the Fajr prayer by a person observing Saum (fast)

Sunnah ≈ the legal way(s), orders, acts of worship, and statements of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), that have become models to be followed by the Muslims

T

Tahajjud ≈ optional night prayer offered at any time after Ishā prayer and before the Fajr prayer

Takbīr ≈ Saying Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greater)

Tarāwīh ≈ optional salāt offered after the Ishā prayers on the nights of Ramadan

Tashahhud ≈ the recitation of the invocation: At-tahiyātu lilāhi... (up to) ... wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasūl-ullāh while in Qu'ūd—sitting position in salāt // it also means to testify "none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) is the Messenger of Allah."

Tauhīd ≈ Islamic monotheism // to believe in the six articles of faith: (1) Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, (2) His Angels, (3) His Messengers, (4) His revealed Books, (5) The Day of Resurrection, and (6) Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainment) // and to act on the following principles of Islam: (1) to say the shahāda, (2) to offer the salāt dutifully and perfectly, (3) to pay zakāt, (4) to perform Hajj, and (5) to fast during Ramadan.

U

Ummah ≈ community; nation

'Umrah ≈ a visit to Makkah during which one performs the Tawāf around the Ka'bah and the Sa'y between As-Safā and Al-Marwah

W

Walī ≈ protector, guardian, supporter, helper, friend

Witr ≈ an odd number of rak'at with which one finishes their salāt at night after the Ishā prayer

Wudū/Wudhu ≈ abulution; done for the purpose of offering prayers or doing circumambulation around the Ka'bah

Z

Zakāt ≈ obligatory charity // a certain fixed proportion of the wealth and of every kind of the property liable to Zakāt of a Muslim to be paid yearly for the benefit of the poor in the Muslim community

Zakāt-ul-Fitr ≈ an obligatory sadaqah given by Muslims before the prayer of Eid-al-Fitr


References

Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur'an in the English Language by Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan